Words other then mine explained in mine.

“A series of empirical studies revealed that discrepancies among various domains of the self resulted in distinct psychological syndromes. In particular, discrepancies between one’s actual and ought selves tended to result in agitation-related emotions, such as guilt, and social anxiety. In contrast, discrepancies between one’s actual and ideal selves tended to result in dejection-related emotions such as disappointment, dissatisfaction, shame, and depression.

A tendency to possess self-discrepancies has also been shown to be associated with specific parenting styles experienced during childhood. Specifically, a tendency toward actual: ought discrepancies tends to be associated with prior exposure to a parenting style involving the administration versus withholding of punishment, whereas actual: ideal discrepancies are more likely to be present in individuals who were exposed to parenting styles based upon the administration versus withholding of reward.”

Analysis: This is giving the same examples spoken about about earlier but speaking about the parenting style which make them more prominent. They say that those that have discrepancy between the the actual and ought were treated with punishment. This makes sense seeing as the ought has the societal ties. It creates a relation between action and punishment. A parent would act the same way that a friend group would when an action that is not fit is done. Conversely the discrepancy between the ideal and the actual is one based off of gain because before the discrepancy is experienced one feel divine joy when both the ideal and actual are in tact it is simply contentness.

“The development of various online platforms (such as social network sites and online games) allows people to present themselves strategically to a greater extent. Individuals can construct their identity in virtual spaces and create a virtual self-online freely (Suh, 2013). An individual’s virtual self is likely to be different from the actual self. For example, on social network sites, people may manipulate their photos to build a more desirable image. In online games, players can pick or construct different game avatars (Loewen et al., 2021). It is found that players perceive their game avatars as more extroverted and less neurotic (Bessière et al., 2007). People also rate the virtual avatar in Second Life as more outgoing and attractive than themselves (Messinger, 2007). Scholars proposed the concept of virtual self-discrepancy to describe the degree to which an individual’s virtual identity deviates from the individual’s actual identity in the real world (Jin, 2012). Individuals may experience virtual self-discrepancy when they engage in online activities. Previous studies suggested that virtual self-presentation has a significant influence on people’s emotions and behavior. Thus, the current study will review the effect of both traditional self-discrepancy and virtual self-discrepancy on online behavior.

Analysis: In this writing they are comparing the creation of an avatar, a fictional character you can play as, as to your ideal self. With the new media platforms people are using the creative freedom to make a version of themselves that they feel better about. This is essentially what everyone does with social media already so it does not surprise me. If everyone was content in what their life was they would post every bit on social media, instead people pick and choose what they want to portray. Virtual self-discrepancy is just another way for us to move farther away from ourselves and find more ways pull ourselves in more directions.

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